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        南極出現數萬具企鵝干尸,極端氣候是罪魁禍首!

        南極出現數萬具企鵝干尸,極端氣候是罪魁禍首!

        網易科學人 2018-09-20 16:43
        0

        據美國生活科學網站報道,近期,科學家在南極洲發現成千上萬具企鵝干尸,對此感到迷惑不解,該現象并不是某種遠古疾病席卷冰冷南極洲所產生的痕跡,也不是貪婪捕食者屠殺企鵝所致。

        目前一項最新研究表明,在過去1000年里南極洲曾發生過兩次極端降雨降雪事件,企鵝在寒冷干燥南極環境形成干尸的原因可能與極端氣候有關。

        南極出現數萬具企鵝干尸,極端氣候是罪魁禍首!

        研究報告作者中國科技大學極地環境研究所地球科學教授孫立廣說:“很有可能全球氣候變暖導致降水增多,從而釀成這場悲劇。”2016年,他帶領研究小組在南極洲長島上偶然發現保存完整、脫水的企鵝“木乃伊遺骸”,其中有許多是幼鳥。

        孫立廣說:“在南極發現阿德利企鵝(Pygoscelis adeliae)遺骸是常見的事情,還能看到企鵝干尸的羽毛和骨骼,但是發現如此數量眾多的企鵝干尸實屬罕見,尤其是還有一些企鵝幼鳥。”

        南極出現數萬具企鵝干尸,極端氣候是罪魁禍首!

        放射性碳年代測定結果表明,這些死亡企鵝主要死亡于兩個不同時期,大約750年前和200年前,“極端氣候事件”持續了幾十年時間。這是研究人員研究企鵝干尸周圍沉積物質得出的結論,他們主要分析了企鵝糞便和筑巢物質。

        此外,研究人員還發現了一些證據,表明暴雨導致洪水沖刷企鵝尸體,以及形成企鵝尸體周圍的沉積物質。之后幸存的企鵝放棄了筑巢區,這可以從大量死亡企鵝殘留少量沉積物看得出來。

        研究人員表示,掌握企鵝在極端氣候事件中的行為表現,將有助于研究人員預測企鵝在未來的生存環境中會發生什么。研究小組中有來自中國和澳大利亞的科學家,他們認為這些極端氣候事件對于企鵝生存并不樂觀。

        孫立廣說:“總體來講,當前全球氣候轉暖趨勢將繼續惡化,隨著人類活動導致的氣候變化,將使地球變得更熱,南極洲將出現更多的降雨和降雪,很可能增大了企鵝大批量死亡的概率。”

        阿德利企鵝是南極本土物種,當前南極有大約250個繁殖區,國際自然保護聯盟(IUCN)將企鵝列為“最少關注”的物種,這意味著企鵝未受到生存威脅或者瀕臨滅絕。但是人類活動導致極端氣候事件已將企鵝陷入危險境地。

        除了歷史記載之外,目前有證據表明,增大降雨和降雪對于企鵝幼鳥是致命的。例如:在2013-2014年的企鵝繁殖期,3次連續降雨和降雪氣候,使得處于生長階段的3.4萬只企鵝幼鳥100%死亡。

        企鵝幼鳥很難在強降雨和降雪氣候中生存下來,因為它們剛出生不久還未長出防水羽毛,意味著在濕冷天氣下會使體溫過低導致死亡。此外,大量降雪可能會使成年繁殖期企鵝很難找到建造巢穴的卵石,以及無法找到沒有積雪的地方產卵。研究人員稱,雪對正在孵化未出生的小企鵝是十分危險的,因為融雪可以淹沒企鵝蛋,導致企鵝幼鳥出生時體重較低。

        孫立廣說:“為了避免企鵝大批量死亡,人類需要做很多努力,減緩當前全球氣候轉暖的趨勢。”這項研究發表在8月28日出版的《地球物理研究雜志》上。

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