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        南极出现数万具企鹅干尸,极端气候是罪魁祸首!

        南极出现数万具企鹅干尸,极端气候是罪魁祸首!

        网易科学人 2018-09-20 16:43
        0

        据美国生活科学网站报道,近期,科学?#20197;?#21335;极洲发现成千上万具企鹅干尸,?#28304;?#24863;到迷惑不解,该现象并不是某种远古疾病席卷冰冷南极洲所产生的痕迹,也不是贪婪捕食者屠杀企鹅所致。

        目前一项最新研究表明,在过去1000年里南极洲曾发生过两次极端降雨降雪事件,企鹅在寒冷干燥南极环境形成干尸的原因可能与极端气候有关。

        南极出现数万具企鹅干尸,极端气候是罪魁祸首!

        研究报告作者中国科技大学极地环境研究所地球科学教授孙立广说?#39608;?#24456;有可能全球气候变暖导致降水增多,从而酿成这场悲剧。”2016年,他带领研究小组在南极洲长岛上偶然发现保存完整、脱水的企鹅“木乃伊遗骸?#20445;?#20854;中有许多是幼鸟。

        孙立广说?#39608;?#22312;南极发现阿德利企鹅(Pygoscelis adeliae)遗骸是常见的事情,还能看到企鹅干尸的羽毛和骨骼,但是发现如此数量众多的企鹅干尸实属罕见,尤其是还有一些企鹅幼鸟。”

        南极出现数万具企鹅干尸,极端气候是罪魁祸首!

        放射性碳年代测定结果表明,这些死亡企鹅主要死亡于两个不同时期,大约750年前和200年前,“极端气候事件”?#20013;?#20102;几十年时间。这是研究人员研究企鹅干尸周围沉积物?#23454;?#20986;的结论,他们主要分析了企鹅粪便和筑巢物质。

        此外,研究人员还发现了一些证据,表明暴雨导致洪水冲刷企鹅尸体,以及形成企鹅尸体周围的沉积物质。之后幸存的企鹅放弃了筑巢区,这可以从大量死亡企鹅残留少量沉积物看得出来。

        研究人员表示,掌握企鹅在极端气候事件中的行为表现,将有助于研究人员预测企鹅在未来的生存环境中会发生什么。研究小组中有来自中国和澳大利亚的科学家,他们认为这些极端气候事件对于企鹅生存并不乐观。

        孙立广说?#39608;?#24635;体来讲,当前全球气候转暖趋势将继续恶化,随着?#27515;?#27963;动导致的气候变化,将使地球变得更热,南极洲将出现更多的降雨和降雪,很可能增大了企鹅大批量死亡的概率。”

        阿德利企鹅是南极本土物种,当前南极有大约250个繁殖区,国?#39318;?#28982;保护联盟(IUCN)将企鹅列为“最少关注”的物种,这意味着企鹅?#35789;?#21040;生存威?#19981;?#32773;濒临灭绝。但是?#27515;?#27963;动导致极端气候事件已将企鹅陷入危?#31449;?#22320;。

        除?#27515;?#21490;记载之外,目前有证据表明,增大降雨和降雪对于企鹅幼鸟是致命的。例如:在2013-2014年的企鹅繁殖期,3次连续降雨和降雪气候,使得处于生长阶段的3.4万只企鹅幼鸟100%死亡。

        企鹅幼鸟很难在强降雨和降雪气候中生存下来,因为它们刚出生不久还未长出?#28010;?#32701;毛,意味着在湿冷天气下会使体温过低导致死亡。此外,大量降雪可能会使成年繁殖期企鹅很难找到建造巢穴的卵石,以及无法找到没有积雪的地方产卵。研究人员称,雪对正在孵化未出生的小企鹅是十分危险?#27169;?#22240;为融雪可以淹没企鹅蛋,导致企鹅幼鸟出生时体重较低。

        孙立广说?#39608;?#20026;了避免企鹅大批量死亡,?#27515;?#38656;要做很多努力,减缓当前全球气候转暖的趋势。”这项研究发表在8月28日出版的《地球物理研究杂志》上。

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