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        家國團圓夢融入中華復興夢

        家國團圓夢融入中華復興夢

        ——傳統文化學者談中秋節的時代內涵
        新華網 2018-09-18 22:31
        0

        新華社北京9月18日電 題:家國團圓夢融入中華復興夢——傳統文化學者談中秋節的時代內涵

        新華社記者 周瑋

        十二度圓皆好看,其中圓極是中秋。每每看到中秋圓月,我們會想到家人,想到故鄉,想到親友……中華的月亮文化注滿濃濃人倫情義,沉淀在中國人意識里的中秋團圓意涵,成為中華兒女追求的生命情調、生命境界。

        戊戌年中秋將至,讓我們來聽傳統文化學者話家國說團圓。

        “天上月圓,人間月半,月月月圓逢月半。”古時沒有日歷,人們以觀月象數日子。在觀象和欣賞中人們發現“月到中秋分外明”,于是中秋節就選擇了八月十五。

        民俗學者李漢秋說,中華文化是倫理型的文化,源于大自然節律的節日,人們總要充實進社會倫理的內涵。中秋在歲時節日中尤重團圓,古代就稱它為“團圓節”。八月中秋的月亮是圓的,中華民族非常重視“圓”。在中國天人合一的宇宙觀中,月亮圓滿的時候也希望人間圓滿。團圓是天倫之圓,夫妻團圓、親人團圓,骨肉情深,家庭和睦,社會和諧,安享天倫之樂。

        八月十五月正圓,中秋月餅香又甜。月餅與時令瓜果是中秋節令食品,人們以家庭團聚的形式,分享勞動成果。月餅是民間享受節日親情的又一重要物象。北京師范大學社會學院教授、中國民俗學會副會長蕭放說,明清以來民間社會中秋節饋送月餅習俗流行。當代社會,傳統中秋節俗中保存最完整的是饋送月餅的節俗,月餅成為中秋節的象征,有的地方將中秋節稱為“月餅節”。“將月餅放在中秋節俗文化環境中,不僅是為了滿足口腹之欲,更是讓它充當精神的載體,分享親情與友情。”

        中秋賞月是自古至今社會上下普遍流行的節俗。在蕭放看來,賞月是人與自然對話、溝通的良機,也是實現人際關系協調的有效途徑。在明月照天的情境中,享受回歸自然的樂趣,賞月節俗在今天尤有意義。人們利用難得的秋天明月,素心對月,各抒情懷,對于生活在喧囂都市的人們來說,是一次精神洗禮。

        月圓之時,漢族“摸秋”,湖南侗族“偷月亮菜”,傣族“拜月”,苗族“跳月”,臺灣高山族“托球舞”……各地區、各民族過節的習俗異趣紛呈。“在中國不同民族和地區的中秋節習俗豐富多彩,形成了以中秋節為核心傳統的符號體系,構成了中華民族以生活為基礎的知識譜系,形成了‘各美其美,美美與共’的中華民族中秋節的文化多樣性。”中央民族大學教授林繼富說,生活在同一個社區、村落的不同民族共享中秋帶來的歡樂,從這個角度來說,中秋節是鑄就中華民族共同體意識的重要節日。

        海上生明月,天涯共此時。即便遠在他鄉異域、分散在天涯海角,中華兒女面對共同的皓月,都會產生心靈共鳴,形成心理凝聚。“這是文化積淀形成的民族文化心理,這是文化認同的深層心理元素。”李漢秋說,家國團圓的愿景是中國人愛家愛國的家國情懷的深層心理結構,是民族凝聚力的深層心理依據,也是我們今天努力實現中國夢的一種精神資源。

        秋收季節,五谷豐登;中天圓月,秋香萬里。國慶節與中秋毗鄰,聯稱雙節,傳統與時代融合,普天同慶。“今年正值改革開放40年,家國巨大變化耀人眼目,中秋節慶成就的內容豐富非凡。”李漢秋說,國人的中秋愿景眼見一步步愈來愈融入現實,家國團圓夢融入中華復興夢,可謂天上月圓,月下餅圓,人間夢圓。

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