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        俄版“混合戰爭”亮劍敘利亞戰場

        俄版“混合戰爭”亮劍敘利亞戰場

        解放軍報 2018-09-20 16:47
        0

        俄羅斯國防部發言人科納申科夫9月5日說,俄空天軍4日對敘利亞伊德利卜省的極端組織“征服陣線”目標實施了空中打擊。

        自2015年9月30日俄軍出兵敘利亞至今,敘政府軍控制區已由當時的僅20%擴大到現在的90%,敘利亞局勢因俄軍的成功介入逐漸走上俄羅斯設計的軌道。

        大體上,俄軍在敘利亞的軍事行動,是由總統普京主導、俄總參謀部設計、諸軍兵種聯合,統籌運用政治、經濟、軍事、外交、輿論等手段的“混合戰爭”。

        “混合戰爭”理論,2007年由美國軍事專家弗蘭克·霍夫曼提出。該理論認為,傳統的大規模正規戰爭和小規模非正規戰爭,正逐步演變為戰爭界限更加模糊、作戰樣式更趨融合、作戰力量更為多元的戰爭。

        俄軍通過研究美軍相應作戰理論,創新發展了“混合戰爭”理論。2013年2月,俄軍總參謀長格拉西莫夫首次提出了俄版的“混合戰爭”理論,指出俄羅斯要學習使用一種軍事、科技、媒體、政治和情報策略多管齊下的“21世紀閃電戰”,用最少的成本打亂敵人的陣腳。根據這一思想,俄軍在克里米亞和支持烏克蘭東部地區自治的行動中,運用“混合戰爭”取得了良好效果,被西方稱為“格拉西莫夫戰法”。在敘利亞戰場上,俄軍以“格拉西莫夫戰法”應對美軍混合戰爭,創造性地實施了政治軍事仗、特種仗、信息仗、整體仗等俄版“混合戰爭”作戰新樣式,戰果卓著,具體來看如下:

        無人作戰系統閃亮登場,作戰效果顯著。俄軍高度重視無人作戰系統的建設與運用,尤其是無人機和陸上無人作戰平臺。2015年初,戰斗機器人連開始在俄各軍區和艦隊組建,并在敘利亞戰場初露鋒芒。2015年底,敘利亞政府軍在攻打拉塔基亞省一處伊斯蘭極端勢力據守的754.5高地時,在俄軍4臺“平臺”-M戰斗機器人、2臺“阿爾戈”戰斗機器人以及“仙女座”-D自動化指揮系統組成的無人作戰系統支援下,僅用20分鐘時間就占領了該高地,擊斃了約70名武裝分子。俄媒高調宣稱這是世界上首次以戰斗機器人為主的攻堅戰。

        運用新戰法提升軍事威懾能力。俄在出兵敘利亞之前,通過頻繁組織各類演訓活動,演練新戰法提升軍事威懾能力。在“中部-2015”戰略演習中,俄軍以伊拉克和敘利亞境內“伊斯蘭國”武裝分子為假想敵,組織海軍艦隊和航空兵實施制空封海、聯合打擊等課目演練。演習中,里海區艦隊在指定海域展開部署,演練對敵陸上目標實施打擊;空天軍出動圖-160、圖-95MC戰略轟炸機,發射巡航導彈對敵縱深目標實施火力打擊。在空襲敘利亞恐怖分子作戰行動中,俄軍將這一戰法運用到實戰中,實現“小戰而屈人之兵”的目的。在敘利亞反恐戰場,俄軍大舉創新戰法,如利用機載“格洛納斯”全球導航系統實現轟炸機的多種自動導航/攻擊戰法,新一代戰機(蘇-34)開辟空中走廊引導老式戰機(蘇-24轟炸機、蘇-25強擊機)超低空突擊的新老編隊戰法等,提高了作戰能力。

        新組建的一體化指揮系統釋放新戰力。以俄國家防務指揮中心為本部,以在敘機動部署的“綜合機動指揮方艙”為節點的一體化指揮系統在敘利亞戰場發揮了重大的跨域指揮控制作用,標志著俄版網絡中心戰的生成。在國家防務指揮中心的指揮下,俄軍動用了空天軍的前線航空兵、天基偵察衛星、部分陸海軍部隊,以及國內軍工企業的前線彈藥補給,顯現出俄軍“大國防計劃”的整體作戰能力。另外,“綜合機動指揮方艙”在敘利亞快速搭建了“兵力與兵器統一指控系統”,借助該系統,指揮官能實時看到戰場景況,實時下達作戰命令。俄軍認為,該指揮系統將部隊的戰斗力提高1至1.5倍,指揮周期縮短80%,彈藥消耗減少15%。(劉瑋琦)


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