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        中秋民俗花样多:偷月亮菜 团圆饮酒吃新米饭

        中秋民俗花样多:偷月亮菜 团圆饮酒吃新米饭

        中新网 2018-09-24 09:38
        0

        “十二度圆皆好看,其中圆极是中秋。”中秋节是中国重要的传统节日之一,早在几天前,大?#20013;?#24055;即已亮起?#23454;疲?#20805;满欢乐氛围。吃月饼、舞火龙……中秋习俗不可谓不丰富。它们都是怎么来的呢?

        点击进入下一页

        ▲资料图?#22909;?#21619;传统的“土月饼”深受民众喜爱。 王将 摄

        节日别名多:都是咋来?#27169;?/strong>

        中秋节,又称仲秋节、八月节、八月会、拜月节或团圆节,名字之多,令人眼花?#26376;搖?#23427;为啥会有这么多别称?

        从时间上来说,古代帝王祭月的时间点是农历八月十五,正好处于三秋之半,故名“中秋节”,八月节等;在习俗上,又有各种祈求一家人团聚的活动,所以又名“团圆节”。

        当然,从古至今,中秋节的主要活动都是围绕月亮进行?#27169;?#28176;渐地,人们就赋予这个节日名称更多美好寓意,比如“月节”、“月夕”、“追月节”等等。在唐朝,中秋节还被称为“端正月”。

        据考证,“中秋”一?#39318;?#26089;出现在古籍《周礼》中。到?#33322;?#26102;,?#23567;?#35861;尚书镇牛淆,中秋夕与左右微服?#33322;?#30340;记载。

        点击进入下一页

        ▲资料图?#27721;?#26381;爱好者演示古人祭拜中秋圆月的仪式。陈超 摄

        时间推移至唐朝初年,中秋节成为固定的节日。《唐书·太宗记》记载?#23567;?#20843;月十五中秋节”。中秋节的盛行始于宋朝,至明清时,已与元旦齐名,成为中国的主要节日之一。

        拜月求福佑 烧宝塔灯 偷月亮菜

        早在?#33322;?#26102;期,民间?#32479;?#29616;了赏月活动,?#25945;?#20195;,中秋赏月、玩月颇为盛行,许多诗人的名篇中都有咏月的诗句。

        中秋与秋收时间刚好重合,这也为饮食习俗提供了丰富食材。月饼是一种很受欢迎的食物。据说吃月饼的习俗始于唐朝,北宋之时传到民间,只不过那时的月饼叫做“小饼”或“月团”。

        点击进入下一页

        ▲资料图:大月饼引儿童围观。 董飞 摄

        民间流?#23567;?#25308;月”祈求福佑。每到八月十五,在院子里摆上香?#31119;?#20877;陈列好祭品,月饼和西瓜必不可少,手巧的人还会把西瓜切成莲花状,十分好看。全家人依次祭拜月亮后,当家主妇切开月饼,分给每个人,不能多切也不能少?#23567;?/p>

        江南一些地方则?#23567;?#21340;状元”的习俗。就是把月饼切成大中小三块叠放,而后全家人掷骰子,按照点数大小?#30452;?#21462;相应的月饼吃掉,其乐融融。在浙江一带,观潮?#33756;?#24471;上是中秋时的一件盛事。

        “较为典?#20599;?#27665;俗活动还有烧宝塔灯、放孔明灯,偷月亮菜等,一家人会在中秋当天团圆饮酒、吃新米饭。”民俗学专家萧放说道。

        现在中秋节可以怎么过?

        在古代社会,中秋节是民俗大节,也是重要的社会生活节点,那时,很多社会活动都是根据一年的几个大节来确定的。而现代社会情况发生改变,中秋节可以怎么过呢?在萧放看来,此时是很好的文化教育、文化传承的机会。

        点击进入下一页

        ▲资料图:中秋佳节将至,香港花灯应节热卖。中新社记者 洪少葵 摄

        “现在月饼卖得好,月饼也是中秋节的一个标志,大家分享月饼,其实意味着分享亲情。”萧放表示,中国人重视家庭,重视团圆,今天,还更重视“社区邻里”的横向社会关系的调整或构建,“可以利用中秋节,加强社区关系”。

        萧放认为,赏月时的情感表达,可以有更广大的内涵,“让邻里之间更和谐,让社会基础更稳定,这可能是今天中秋节要发展的一个趋势”。

        “过中秋节,可以?#23454;?#22686;加娱乐因素,让传统节日变成快乐的节日,年轻人也喜欢。”萧放建议,这样的话,传统节日才能更久远。

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